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Sample 1: Redesign 


The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the practice of redesign, using paper and pencil prototyping and applying the spatial contiguity effect.

The spatial contiguity effect states that "better transfer occurs when printed words are placed near corresponding parts of graphics" (Clark & Mayer, 2016).

Original image:


  • The numbering system is flowing in counter-intuitive direction for the Western culture.

  • The numbering system is not needed since these are not steps.

  • A labeling system will be the best solution.

  • The picture of the cup lid is far from the cup. Solution: reposition lid close to the drink cup parts.

  • Black lines cannot be seen on black background. Solution: change lines (which are on top of black background - control panel) to another color.

  • Reposition all pictures and labels (text) in order to make better use of space.



Working with paper-and-pencil prototyping can save a lot of time and resources, especially, if you work with a team of graphic designers and web developers. Pieces can be easily manipulated and changed to completely different layouts in a very short time. This is a great to use as a formative evaluation or early user experience test – that can be conducted even before you start developing the instructional piece.


Clark, R. C., & Mayer, R. E. (2016). E-learning and the science of instruction: Proven guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia learning. John Wiley & Sons.

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